In general, the alleged witnesses of Jesus’s post-mortem appearances did not simply hallucinate Jesus.
• Groups interacted with him (seeing, touching etc.).
• The figure often did not look like Jesus.
• The figure physically interacted with them.
• Hallucinations are rare.
• Hallucinations never persuade people of resurrection.
• Hallucinations have known/plausible etiologies.
• Hallucinations project known categories.
Paul denies that Jesus appeared non-physically (e.g. intra-mentally), insisting instead that what appeared to him was quite physical and extra-mental; it was Jesus in the flesh, and so externally perceptible. It was not a mere vision or epiphany.
• 1 Cor 9:1 (“I've seen”) denotes normal sight.
• 1 Cor 15 (“buried-appeared”) = physical appear.
• 1 Cor 15:6 (“most remain”) meant witnesses.
• Paul: “Jesus-appearances and visions differ.”
• Paul: “Jesus resurrected physically.”
• An overtly immaterial visit'd not persuade.
• Acts: “Paul says Jesus’ visit hit his group.”
• Acts: “Jesus physically appeared to Paul.”
This is relevant, because if Paul hallucinated, it would’ve been either through a visual hallucination or non-visual hallucination (e.g. an epiphany), and neither of these is compatible with Paul’s understanding of the event.
The circumstances surrounding conversion and subsequent ministry appear blatantly supernatural, dripping with ties to Jesus Christ’s supernatural power.
• Paul’s companions were impacted
• Paul was blinded.
• Acts: “A Christian (Ananias) healed him.”
• Dramatic story-brilliant conversion.
• Shockingly successful ministry. • Paul allegedly saw/performed miracles.
Paul did not initially know the identity of the figure; at first he was confused as to who it was.
• Implied by Paul's language in 1 Cor 15:8 (“untimely born”)2
• Acts misrepresents Paul. [Forthcoming]
• It was just a rarer kind of hallucination. [Forthcoming]
According to Paul, his experience was squarely located within his mind; he thinks Jesus “appeared” to him personally in a vision or something else intra-mental like and epiphany.
• E.g. Paul: “I just felt Jesus ‘appear’ inside me.”
• E.g. Paul: “I saw Jesus as an intangible vision.”
• Paul: “Jesus resurrected non-physically.”
Paul was cognitively poised to hallucinate Jesus’s appearing, due to one or more psychological tensions or conditions he suffered from.
It is just plainly false that Jesus Christ was raised from the dead by God.
• Dead people always stay dead.
• God wouldn’t raise Jesus from death.
• Jesus had not died.
• Jesus never existed.