In 1st century Jewish thought, women were generally regarded as inappropriate or unworthy mediators of God’s word to men.
• E.g. Pseudo-Phil LAB 9:10 says Miriam’s righteous parents rejected her vision
• E.g. Pseudo-Philo, LAB 42:1-5 says Manoah rejected wife’s words (from an angel)
• E.g. Leviticus Rabbah 10:5
In 1st century Mediterranean thought, it could be rhetorically played as illicit or shameful in general for men to rely on women’s testimony as dependable evidence. Women ought not be sources of the men’s knowledge.
• In general, women were considered unreliable witnesses.
Reputed demoniacs (or former demoniacs) were considered unreliable as witnesses. [Full article.] In 1st century Mediterranean thought, it could be rhetorically played as illicit or shameful for the apostles to rely on the testimony of reputed demoniacs (or former demoniacs) as evidence.1