The most valuable goods in our world require, risk, or result in the sufferings that we see.
This page analyzes 11 arguments:
The greatest goods include:
This is relevant because greater goods can justify God's permitting some or all of sufferings that we see.
The world would be better in the absence of at least some of the sufferings we see occuring. This is relevant because, if and all-good God existed, then that God would opt for making the world better when possible.
By way of response, however, couldn't it simply be that there is no best world, so God would not opt for one.1
Choosing to prevent some sufferings that we see would be more humane/loving of God (even if it makes the world worse). This is relevant because God has a duty to treat his creation humanely.
By way of response, however, couldn't it simply be that God has no duties?[Forthcoming]