[Big Bang] Did our universe expand from a hot dense state?

Reasons given for answering "Yes"
  • Galaxies are diverging like dots on a balloon

      As predicted, Galaxies are diverging like dots on a balloon (i.e. diverging with a velocity proportional to their distance). We know this because…
      • …Their spectral light is redshifted (away-moving), and more red per distance.
      “In 1929 Edwin Hubble collated about 40 results for the red shift measurements in the spectra of galaxies and published his famous law: the velocity at which a galaxy is moving away is directly proportional to its distance from us”
      This is relevant because, “Of all the great predictions that science has ever made over the centuries, was there ever one greater than this, to predict, and predict correctly, and predict against all expectation [from General Relativity] a phenomenon so fantastic as the expansion of the universe?” [John Wheeler, “Beyond the Black Hole.” In H. Wolf (ed.), Some Strangeness in the Proportion (Addison-Wesley, 1980), 354.]

  • There is a "Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation"

      There is a “Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation” with gas-like distribution (i.e. Radio telescopes can measure a faint background noise throughout the universe, and the pattern of this glow very specifically matches that of a uniformly distributed hot gas that expanded to the size of the universe.)1 This is relevant because it uniquely fits an inflationary model wherein all space and matter was condensed into a small area of hot energy that rapidly expanded.

      1. This background radiation was discovered on accident in 1964 by two Nobel prize winning radio astronomers (Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson).
  • Predicted He4, Dt, He3, Ith7

      There is an abundance of helium-4, and traces of deuterium, helium-3, lithium-7. This is relevant because this highly specific profile was essentially predicted by the Big Bang model.1

      1. Alexander Vilenkin: “Calculations show that about 23 percent of all nucleons end up in helium, and almost all the rest in hydrogen. Small amounts of deuterium and lithium are also produced. Modern analysis, using the latest data on nuclear reactions and extensive computer power, give precise element abundances as they come out of the cosmic furnace. These calculations are in very impressive agreement with modern astronomical observations. By studying the spectrum of light emitted by distant objects, astronomers can determine their chemical composition. …less than 23% of helium… deterium… one part in 10,000… lithium… one part in a billion… [Many Worlds in One (Hill and Wang, 2007), 36.] (Also see Quentin Smith, “The Uncaused Beginning of the Universe,” in William Lane Craig & Quentin Smith, Theism, Atheism, and Big Bang Cosmology (Oxford, 1993), 109. n. 1.)