Do cells, eyes, brains etc. resemble products of intelligent design?

“Yes, after all…
  • …like the cell and its inner-workings

      The cell gives observers a strong initial impression that it was intelligently designed.1, 2 (For example, see videos of touring the cell's machinery, of cell wrapping and DNA replication, and of flagellar assembly). This is relevant because the cell is a life-form.

      1. Bruce Alberts (President of the National Acadamy of Sciences, Biochemist): “We have always underestimated the cell… The entire cell can be viewed as a factory that contains an elaborate network of interlocking assembly lines, each of which is composed of a set of large protein machines… Why do we call [them] machines? Precisely because, like machines invented by humans to deal efficiently with the macroscopic world, these protein assemblies contain highly coordinated moving parts.” [“The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines: Preparing the Next Generation of Molecular Biologists,” Cell, 92 (Feb. 8, 1998): 291.]
        Michael Denton (Biochemist, Senior Research Fellow at Otago; Agnostic critic of Darwinism): “We would see that nearly every feature of our own advanced machines had its analogue in the cell: artificial languages and their decoding systems, memory banks for information storage and retrieval, elegant control systems regulating the automated assembly of parts and componants, error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control, assembly processes involving the principle of prefaberication and modular construction… [and] a capacity not equaled in any of our own most advanced machines, for it would be capable of replicating its entire structure within a matter of a few hours.” [Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Adler and Adler, 1986), 329]
        Michael Denton: “To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must magnify a cell a thousand million times until it is twenty kilometers in diameter and resembles a giant airship large enough to cover a great city like London or New York. What we would then see would be an object of unparalelled complexity and adaptive design. On the surface of the cell we would see millions of openings, like port holes of a vast space ship, opening and closing to allow a continual stream of materials to flow in and out. If we were to enter one of these openings we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity… [a complexity] beyond our own creative capacities, a reality which is the very antithesis of chance, which excels in every sense anything produced by the intelligence of man…” [Evolution: A Theory in Crisis]
        Martin G. L. van den Heuvel, Cees Dekker: “The biological cell is equipped with a variety of molecular machines that perform complex mechanical tasks such as cell division or intracellular transport.” [“Motor Proteins at Work for Nanotechnology” Science 20, Vol. 317 no. 5836 (July 2007): 333.]
      2. Regarding the flagellum:
        William Dembski (Mathematician, podoctoral work in comp sci. at Princeton): “The flagellum includes an acid powered rotary engine, a stator, O-rings, bushings and a drive shaft.” [Intelligent Design (IVP, 1999), 148.]
      3. For the definitive book on the cells appearance of having been designed, see bio chemist Fazale Rana's The Cell's Design (2008, Baker books).
  • [More forthcoming]
  • “No, after all…
  • [Bad designs exist]


      But so what if there were bad designs in life? Couldn't it simply be that…
      • …a bad or supoptimal design can still give the strong appearance of design? (E.g. a poorly designed watch or car).
      • …an originally optimal design was degraded?
      • …an originally optimal design remains optimal, but for an environment that has changed?