Is Darwinian evolution true?

Reasons given for answering "Yes"
  • Complex designs appear explosively in life-history

      Life-forms appears explosively, or change suddenly in a way inconsistent with the observed usual varation in organisms.

      But so what if life-forms appear explosively? Darwinian mechanisms are in fact very good at creating these appearances of design.

  • DNA modifications don't create organs/body-plans

      Richard Sternberg, Stephen Meyers, Paul Nelson, Jonathan Wells: “But there are solid empirical grounds for arguing that changes in DNA alone cannot produce new organs or body plans. A technique called "saturation mutagenesis"1,2 has been used to produce every possible developmental mutation in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster),3,4,5 roundworms (Caenorhabditis elegans),6,7 and zebrafish (Danio rerio),8,9,10 and the same technique is now being applied to mice (Mus musculus).11,12 None of the evidence from these and numerous other studies of developmental mutations supports the neo-Darwinian dogma that DNA mutations can lead to new organs or body plans--because none of the observed developmental mutations benefit the organism.” [Citations from original source]

      1. R. M. Myers, L. S. Lerman & T. Maniatis, "A general method for saturation mutagenesis of cloned DNA fragments," Science 229 (1985): 242-247.
      2. T. S. Wong, et al., "Sequence saturation mutagenesis (SeSaM): a novel method for directed evolution," Nucleic Acids Research 32 (2004): e26. Available online (2010) at
      3. C. Nüsslein-Volhard & E. Wieschaus, "Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila," Nature 287 (1980): 795-801. 4 .K. V. Anderson & C. Nüsslein-Volhard, "Information for the dorsal-ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is stored in maternal RNA," Nature 311 (1984): 223-227.
      4. H. G. Frohnhöfer & C. Nüsslein-Volhard, "Organization of anterior pattern in the Drosophila embryo by the maternal gene bicoid," Nature 324 (1986): 120-125.
      5. D. V. Clark & D. L. Baillie, "Genetic analysis and complementation by germ-line transformation of lethal mutations in the unc-22 IV region of Caenorhabditis elegans," Molecular & General Genetics 232 (1992): 97-105.
      6. R. C. Johnsen, S. J. Jones & A. M. Rose, "Mutational accessibility of essential genes on chromosome I(left) in Caenorhabditis elegans," Molecular & General Genetics 263 (2000): 239-252.
      7. M. C. Mullins, et al., "Large-scale mutagenesis in the zebrafish: in search of genes controlling development in a vertebrate," Current Biology 4 (1994): 189-202.
      8. P. Haffter, et al., "The identification of genes with unique and essential functions in the development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio," Development 123 (1996): 1-36. Available online (2010) at
      9. W. Dreiver, et al., "A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish," Development 123 (1996): 37-46. Available online (2010) at
      10. K. E. Hentges, et al., "Regional variation in the density of essential genes in mice," PLoS Genetics 3 (2007): e72. Available online (2010) at
      11. J. A. Hagarman & T. P. O'Brien, "An essential gene mutagenesis screen across the highly conserved piebald deletion region of mouse chromosome 14," Genesis 47 (2009): 392-403.
  • Reasons given for answering "No"
  • [Observed instances of Darwinian evolution]