• …Osiris rose only in the underworld
Goelet: “Once revitalized, he usually appears as Wennefer, an epithet which perhaps means “he who is always perfect.” When Osiris comes back to life, however, he never returns to the land of the living, but remains in the Underworld, the Duat, where he rules as King of Eternity and supreme judge of the dead. His resurrection was limited to the next world and so he passed on the rights of kingship to his son and avenger, Horus...” [Faulkner, EBD, 149.]
a) No, Osiris's body was disassembled and reassembled physically in this world. b) No, Osiris's manifestation in nature (e.g. the Nile) physical.
D.M. Murdock: “Isis puts his body back together and But Vision? then hovers above it to impregnate herself. If Osiris wasn’t resurrected first in the “real world,” why were his body parts needed to raise him? And why is he depicted as “resuscitated” so that he can impregnate Isis as a bird hovering over his body? Surely he is not dead, and Isis is not in the netherworld, in this instance of fecundation.” [Christ in Egypt, ]
By way of response however, Egyptian's believed the physical state of the body in the real world determined the state of the spiritual body in the netherworld (realm of the dead). This is why pharoahs built such elaborate tombs and arranged to have their corpses hidden in secret chambers. So: Plutarch: [After Isis reassembled Osiris's body in this world] “Osiris came to Horus from the other world and exercised and trained him for the battle.” [Moralia vol. 5:19 (358), trans. by Babbitt, (LCL, Harvard, 1936) 47.] Osiris's physical body from our world remained dead: not resurrected.
D.M. Murdock: “he nevertheless is resurrected again into the material world both as his own son on a daily basis and as the gift of life in several ways during the months and years, including as the light waxing in the moon and the inundating Nile.” “If many natural phenomena can be interpreted as resurrections, the power of resurrection is peculiarly Osiris’ own. The divine figure of the dead king personified the resurgence of vitality which becomes manifest in the growing corn, the waxing flood, the increasing moon.” [Frankfort, KG, 197.]
Physical: in the Nile:
Frankfurt: “His resurrection meant his entry upon life in the Beyond, and it was one of the inspiring truths of Egyptian religion that, notwithstanding his death, Osiris became manifest as life in the world of men. From his grave in the earth or in the depleted Nile, from the world of the dead, his power emanated, mysteriously transmuted into a variety of natural phenomena which had one common feature: they waxed and waned.” “His resurrection meant his entry upon life in the Beyond, and it was one of the inspiring truths of Egyptian religion that, notwithstanding his death, Osiris became manifest as life in the world of men. From his grave in the earth or in the depleted Nile, from the world of the dead, his power emanated, mysteriously transmuted into a variety of natural phenomena which had one common feature: they waxed and waned.” [Frankfort, KG, 185.]
By way of response however,\
• …The most physical aspect was not Osris's physical body. The latest corn crop was not considered Jesus's resurrecting: Frankfurt:“Osiris was resurrected, but he did not resume his former existence, i.e., he did not reascend the throne” ... “Osiris was resurrected to a life in the Beyond,” [Frankfort, KG, 197.]
• Herman te Velde (Chairman of the Department of Egyptology at the University of Groningen): “As Re [Ra] who manifests himself in the sun goes to rest in the evening and awakes from the sleep of death in the morning, so do the death and resurrection of Osiris seem to be equally inevitable and natural.” [te Velde, 81.] • Dr. Goelet: This theme of rebirth is one of the reasons for the frequent identification of the deceased with Re. Here lay the hope not for mere rebirth but for a daily rebirth in the manner of the sun.” [Raymond O. Faulkner, The Egyptian Book of the Dead (Chronicle Books, 1998).] Samuel Birch: “I am the Yesterday, the Morning, the Light at its birth the second time; the Mystery of the Soul made by the Gods… Lord of mankind seen in all his rays, the Conductor coming forth from the darkness… I am the Lord of Life.” [Bunsen, C.C.J. and Birch, Samuel, Egypt’s Place in Universal History, V, tr. Charles H. Cottrell, Longmans, Green, and Co., 1867), 206-209.] E. A. Budge: “I am the Lord of those who are raised up from the dead, who cometh forth from out of the darkness.”[The Book of the Dead: An English Translation of the Chapters, Hymns, Etc, of the Theban Recension (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1899), 218.] • …T. George Allen: “Mine are yesterday and each morrow, (for I am) in charge of (its) successive births. (I am) the Hidden of Soul who made the gods…” [“Allen, T., BD, 56.]
Nightly basis: “As Faulkner notes of CT Sp. 74, “The deceased, identified with Osiris, is summoned to wake from his sleep in the tomb.”[“Faulkner, AECT, I, 70.]
CT Sp. 66: “the earth has been removed for you,”
The resurrection could also be deemed a “daily rejuvenation,” as rendered by Faulkner in CT Sp. 238.[Faulkner, AECT, I, 187.] As we can see, resurrection out of the tomb was a common motif long before the common era.”
…(annually) reborn in the vegetation (corn)[“See, e.g., Mettinger, 169.”]
• …“…the image of Osiris was consigned to a sepulcher for three days; and…on the fourth, the priests opened it and brought forth a heifer to the people, as the deity restored to life.” [The Classical Journal (XXIX, 92)”] • …Edwin C. Krupp: “The myth of Osiris involves his own death and resurrection, a theme that echoes the daily cycle of the sun’s death and its rebirth at dawn.”[Echoes of the Ancient Skies (16)] • …“According to the faith of later times, Osiris was three days and three nights in the waters before he was restored to life again.” [The American Journal of Theology (XX, 5)]
Sir Rev. Dr. W. Robertson Nicoll: “The death and resurrection of Osiris embraced three days from Nov. 12-14.” [Nicoll, 344.]
• G.A. Wells comments: "…according to Plutarch…the festival of Osiris was spread over three days, his death being mourned on the first and his resurrection celebrated on the night of the third with the joyful shout “Osiris has been found.” [Wells, 18.]
• Plutarch (39, 366D-E):Consequently they say that the disappearance of Osiris occurred in the month of Athyr, at the time when, owing to the complete cessation of the Etesian winds, the Nile recedes to its low level and the land becomes denuded. As the nights grow longer, the darkness increases, and the potency of the light is abated and subdued. Then among the gloomy rites which the priests perform, they shroud the gilded image of a cow with a black linen vestment, and display her as a sign of mourning for the goddess, inasmuch as they regard both the cow and the earth as the image of Isis; and this is kept up for four days consecutively, beginning with the seventeenth of the month. The things mourned for are four in number: first, the departure and recession of the Nile; second, the complete extinction of the north winds, as the south winds gain the upper hand; third, the day’s growing shorter than the night; and, to crown all, the denudation of the earth together with the defoliation of the trees and shrubs at this time. On the nineteenth day they go down to the sea at night[…]”[“Plutarch/Babbitt, 95-97. (Emph. added.)”]
“three-day period, the 17th, 18th and 19th of the month Athyr (Hathor)
BLAKE: Look at Mettinger, 169.
Acharya: “We have also already discussed the Koiak festival during the month of December, in which the raising of the djed pillar or Tat cross/Tau symbolized Osiris’s resurrection, specifically named as such by Mettinger, for one.”
• Mojsov: “Every year in the town of Abydos his death and resurrection after three days were celebrated in a publicly enacted passion play called the Mysteries of Osiris. In the New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC), after the rise of the sun cult and the monotheistic religion introduced by King Akhenaton, the “cult of Osiris clasped hands with the cult of Ra and Osiris became an enlightened savior-god, shepherd to immortality for ordinary people. By the Late Period (1069-332 BC), his cult had spread around the Mediterranean. As the redemptive figure of the Egyptian god loomed large over the ancient world, Isis came to be worshipped as the Primordial Virgin and their child as the Savior of the World.” [Mojsov, xii. See also Frazer, AAO, 211.]
“Miracle Play” reinactments (Osirian passion play)
Budge: “…The spread of their cult [Osiris and Isis] was largely caused by the annual performance of the great Miracle Play at Abydos, in which the principal events of the life, death, funeral ceremonies, and resurrection of Osiris were represented. The Play was based on Legends which had been current in Egypt for untold centuries…” [Budge, LOLM, lii.]
• Budge: “This act was the greatest in the Osiris play, for it represented the “coming forth” of Osiris from the temple after his death, and the departure of his body to his tomb….” [Budge, OER, II, 6.]
• Nan M. Holley (Bedford College): “The celebration of his death and resurrection took place, in historical times, in the fourth month of the inundation, just before the first ploughing. The ritual is known to us from documents of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods; but the celebration goes back to the Old Kingdom… The body of Osiris was “found” in the Nile and brought to the shrine…. Human actors probably carried out an equivalent rite. Elaborate ceremonies were then performed to revive the dead Osiris…” [Holley, 43-44.]
• George Hodges: “On the 28th of October was enacted in a kind of passion play the death of Osiris, killed by Set the god of evil, with weeping and mourning. Three days after, the lamentation was changed to cries of joy: “We have found him, let us rejoice together!” Osiris had risen from the dead.” [Hodges, G., 22.]
The play is old (long before Jesus' birth) >“Since the time of the twelfth dynasty [1991 to 1802 BCE], and probably much earlier, there had been held at Abydos and elsewhere a sacred performance similar to the mysteries of our Middle Ages, in which the events of Osiris’s passion and resurrection were reproduced.” [Cumont, 98.]
Kergmatic quote. How does Horus explain it?