• …causation is itself temporal (so you can't cause space-time without space-time).
But so what if the Universe has a cause? [All Forthcoming]
• …the cause is the Universe itself (causing itself).
• …the cause is a rebounding previous Universe.
• …the cause is nothing.
• …the cause is an abstract object (e.g. an equation).
• …the cause is a fluctuation from a background universe.
• …the cause is a Chaotic-Inflation process (pre-space)
• …“God did it” is not an explanation.
• …God would need a cause, too.
The Universe/physics is fine-tuned for permitting life. That is to say, of all the known ways the universe could have been, few ways would ever allow any life to exist. Consider…
• …the initial conditions of the universe are fine-tuned.
• …the laws of physics are fine-tuned.
This is a very awkward and shocking development for atheist cosmologists1 because it means for them that we got really lucky for no reason. If God exists, however, then the Universe’s ability to permit life is not nearly so surprising or improbable.2 Such a universe is the kind of thing God would plausibly choose to create.3
But no, …
• …changes just yield different life forms
• …constant's can't be different (T.O.E.)
• …life-friendly Universes are rare but probable[Forthcoming]
• …one can't do probabilities with an infinite range[Forthcoming]
• …new knowledge will eliminate fine-tuning
• …over 99.9% of the universe is hostile to life.[Forthcoming]
But so what if the Universe is fine-tuned (or life-permitting)? Plausibly…
• …many universes exist or existed, and we won the universe lottery.4
• …we would not be here unless the unlikely did occur.
• …the Universe is equally fine-tuned to permit rocks, etc.5[See response]
• …it is only fine-tuned to life as we know it.
• …God would need a fine-tuner, too.
• …“God did it” is not an explanation.[Forthcoming]
The Universe is fine-tuned for being discoverable[Forthcoming] (i.e., of all the known ways the universe could have been, and even among the subset which allows for lifeforms, few have initial conditions, laws, and physical constants which would ever allow those lifeforms to learn about it). This is a very awkward and shocking development for atheists 1 because it means for them* that we got really lucky for no reason. If God exists, however, then the Universe’s amenability to being discovered and known is not nearly so surprising or improbable.2 Such a universe is the kind of thing God would plausibly choose to create.
Features of living organisms appear as if they were intelligently designed, even if the appearance is only superficial. Consider…
This is relevant because if God did not exist, then the likelihood of this being true is very low. Simultaneously, if God does exist, then life's appearing intelligently designed is not nearly so unexpected because life actually being intelligently designed is not unexpected.
But so what if life gives a superficial appearance of design? Plausibly…
• … [life evolved in an unguided way that mimics the pattern of intelligent design].[Forthcoming]
Our cognitive faculties (perception, memory, reason, etc.) are such that they are generally reliable.1 (That is to say, they are more inclined to recommend to us true beliefs rather than false ones.) Consider that intuitions justify beliefs;…
• …intuition justifies belief that x happened in the past.
• …intuition justifies belief that x exists outside my mind.
• …intuition justifies belief that x is conscious.
• …intuition justifies belief that x is objectively morally wrong.
• …intuition justifies belief that x could've occurred.
This is relevant because it is awkward and unexplained if atheism is true, whereas if theism is true, it is not nearly so unlikely or unexpected. After all, creating moral agents with generally reliable cognitive faculties able to interact with each other is the kind of thing a good God would plausibly choose to do.2
But so what if our cognitive faculties are generally reliable? Plausibly…
• reliable faculties were selected for by an unguided evolutionary process.[Forthcoming]
As studies show, humans are innately inclined to be theists; they instinctively find theism commonsensical or intuitive. (By “intuitive” here, we mean that cognitively healthy humans from childhood into adulthood are innately predisposed to think atheism “seems” false or absurd). Consider…
• …Atheists find theism intuitive. (Finland study, 2013)
• …Humans are born believers. (Oxford study, 2011)
• …Intuitive thinkers favor theism. (Harvard study, 2011)
This is relevant because in the absence of a new belief which undercuts or rebuts it, it is rational to heed the suggestions of our philosophical intuitions. Doing otherwise runs one into severe worldview consequences, where one is suddenly unable to justify one's most basic beliefs.
But so what if God-belief is instinctive? Couldn't it be that…
• …the God intuition is a misleading evolutionary byproduct?
Some actions are objectively morally wrong (i.e., wrong despite what anybody believes). This is relevant because the existence of such specifically personal facts in the world is unlikely if the world is, at bottom, impersonal (particles and physics), and yet it is very much the kind of thing we would anticipate if a God exists who grounds the world and who could not fail to have been loving, honest, etc.
But so what? Plausibly… [All Forthcoming]
• …x's net consequences are bad.
• …x is done for bad reasons.
• …x wouldn't be done by an “ideal observer”.
A metaphysically necessary being exists (that is to say, there is an entity/thing which, by its own nature, could not fail to exist). Consider…
• …A “Sum-styled” Leibnizian Cosmological Argument
• …A “Start-styled” Leibnizian Cosmological Argument
• …Pruss's Leibnizian Cosmological Argument
• …A Big Bang Argument from Beginnings
• …Rasmussen's Modal Argument from Beginnings
• …Weaver's Argument from Beginnings
This is relevant because the entity in question will, by necessity, have a series of properties which strikingly resemble those of God.1
[Brackets] mean “forthcoming.”
• …it would make for a better world.This is relevant because so many today and throughout history have suffered, sometimes even through horrific pain.
• …it is more loving.[Forthcoming]
• …belief in God is required for relationship with God.This is relevant because there are so many today and throughout history who have inculpably remained in non-belief, persons who have obviously not had any God convincingly meet them or otherwise bring them to belief.
[Brackets] mean “forthcoming.”
God's properties are incoherent, contradict, or entail contradictions For example…[All forthcoming]
• …Some properties are incoherent all by themselves, like…This is relevant because if God's properties are incoherent or impossible, then God is incoherent or impossible.
• …Omnipotence (all-powerful) (e.g., …it means unliftable rocks can be lifted)!
• …Omniscience (all-knowing)
• …Omnibenevolence (all-good)
• …Free will (libertarian freedom)
• …Perfect rationality
• …Some properties are incoherent in relation to other properties, like… [All Forthcoming]
• …Being timeless and personal
• …Being omniscient and libertarianly free
• …Being omnipotent and omnibenevolent
• …Being all-just and all-loving