Did Peter publicly maintain that Jesus resurrected?

“Yes, after all…
  • Paul says Peter believed Jesus resurrected

      Paul publicly maintained that Peter believed Jesus resurrected.1 This is relevant because Paul knew whether Peter actually believed this (having interacted with him on several occasions, and staying with him for fourteen days).

      1. For example, Paul wrote in 1 Corinthians 15 “For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, … that [Jesus] was raised, and that He appeared to Cephas who is Peter, then to the twelve.” He adds: “Whether then it was I or they [Peter et al.], so we preach and so you believed.” In other words, the message of Jesus's resurrection appearances to Peter was preached by Peter himself, and Paul's audience knew that.
  • Acts reports that Peter proclaimed Jesus's resurrection

      Acts reports that Peter proclaimed Jesus's resurrection.1 This is relevant because the Acts reports here are reliable. (See: Speeches in Acts are reliable)

      1. Pentecost Speech: Acts 2:14-32 -- Peter, taking his stand with the eleven,… raised his voice and declared… “…all you who live in Jerusalem, let this be known… Jesus the Nazarene, a man… you nailed to a cross … This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses.”
        Temple Beggar Speech: Acts 3:12-15 -- at the so-called portico of Solomon... But when Peter saw this, he replied…, “Men of Israel,… God… has glorified His servant Jesus, the one whom you … put to death the Prince of life, the one whom God raised from the dead, a fact to which we are witnesses.”
        First Arrest Speech: Acts 4:20 -- Peter… said to them [Annas… Caiaphas and John and Alexander], “let it be known to all of you and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead. …for we cannot stop speaking about what we have seen and heard.”
        Second Arrest Speech: Acts 5:29 -- Peter… answered, “We must obey God … [He] raised up Jesus, whom you had put to death by hanging Him on a cross. … we are witnesses of these things; …”
        Cornelius Speech: Acts 10:34-42 -- Peter said: “…You know of Jesus of Nazareth, … We are witnesses of all the things He did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem. They also put Him to death by hanging Him on a cross. 40 God raised Him up on the third day and granted that He become visible, … to witnesses who were chosen beforehand by God, that is, to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead. 42 And He ordered us to preach to the people, and solemnly to testify…”
  • The Jerusalem church maintained that Jesus resurrected

      The Jerusalem church publicly maintained that Jesus resurrected. This is relevant because Peter was a member of the Jerusalem church. (In fact, he was a leader in it.)1

      1. Bart Ehrman (NT & religion professor at UNC): “…it is clear that in the beginning months of the church, soon after Jesus' death, it was Peter who took charge and began the mission to convert others to faith in Jesus. Some twenty years later the apostle Paul could still speak of Peter as one of the ‘pillars’ of the Jerusalem church, along with John, the son of Zebedee, and James, the brother of Jesus (Ga. 2:9).” [Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene (Oxford, 2008), 81.]
        For example, 1 Corinthians 15 reports “that He was raised, and that He appeared to Cephas [who is Peter], then to the twelve.” This is relevant because the 1 Corinthians 15 report dates back to A.D. 30-35 and reflected the teachings of the early Jerusalem church; in fact, most experts believe it was originated by the Jerusalem church. Notice as well in the report itself that Paul testified to “passing it down” and notes that “Whether then it was I or they [Peter et al.], so we preach and so you believed.” In other words, the message of Jesus's appearance to Peter et al. was preached by Peter.
  • 1 Peter 1 & 3 says Jesus resurrected

      1 Peter 1:21 says “God, who raised Him from the dead,” and 1 Peter 3:21 says “through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.” This is relevant because 1 Peter was written by Peter the Apostle.1

      1. The question of whether 1 Peter was written by Peter is widely disputed. As one argument in its favor, however, consider that the author's language in 1 Peter matches that of Peter's speeches in the book of Acts.
        Acts 2:23 / 1 Peter 1:2 -- “…predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God…” / “…chosen according to the foreknowledge of God…”
        Acts 3:6 / 1 Peter 1:18-- “…I do not possess silver and gold, but [in Jesus's name—walk!]…” / “…you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold…”
        Acts 3:16 / 1 Peter 1:21-- “…faith which comes through Him…” / “…through Him are believers in God…”
        Acts 3:19-21 / 1 Peter 3:11-12 -- “…turn to God,… that times of refreshing may come from the Lord, and that he may send the Messiah,… Heaven must receive him until the time comes for God to restore everything,…” / “…Since everything will be destroyed in this way, what kind of people ought you to be? You ought to live holy and godly lives as you look forward to the day of God and speed its coming.”
        Acts 10:34 /1 Peter 1:17 -- …“I most certainly understand now that God is not one to show partiality…” / “…as Father the One who impartially judges…”
        Acts 10:42 / 1 Peter 4:5 -- “…the One who has been appointed by God as Judge of the living and the dead…” / “…Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.…”
  • 1 Cor 15:1-11 reports that Jesus resurrected

      1 Corinthians 15 reports “that He was raised, and that He appeared to Cephas who is Peter, _then to the twelve.” This is relevant because 1 Corinthians was written by Paul (who intimately knew Peter's official position, saying that Jesus appeared to Peter in v.3).

      Moreover, the content in v3-5 is material that was already in circulation, Paul was “passing it down”, and notes that “Whether then it was I or they [Peter et al.], so we preach and so you believed.” In other words, the message of Jesus's appearance to Peter et al. was preached by Peter.

  • All the apostles maintained that Jesus resurrected

      All the 12 apostles (minus Judas) maintained that Jesus resurrected. [Forthcoming] This is relevant because Peter was one of the 12 apostles.

  • Peter believed Jesus made resurrection appearances to him
  • Peter was martryed

      Peter was marytred. This is relevant because it is best explained by his persistent proclaiming Jesus's resurrection (something controversial).

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